## Streaming multi-scale anomaly detection## Problem setup\(x(t)\) are observations over time \(t\) where new data arrives over time \(t\). Problem : Window of \(x(t)\), i.e. \([t:t-p+1]\) which ‘‘deviates’’ from normal behavior. Motivation : How to become invariant to window-size/scale of pseudo-periodic structure in \(x(t)\) ? Solution : Track correlations of principal subspace at various scales
## MethodologyAt \(t\) we build multiple lag-embeddings of series \(x(t)\) at size \(p\) : \(X_t^p = [x_{t}, x_{t-1}, \ldots, x_{t-p+1}]^T \in \mathbb{R}^p\). Given \(X^p \in \mathbb{R}^{T \times p}\), \(\mathbf{w}_p\) is defined as 1-D projection capturing most of the energy of samples :
\( \mathbf{w}_p = \arg\min_{\|\mathbf{w}\|=1} \sum^T_{t=1} \| X_{t}^p - (\mathbf{w}\mathbf{w}^T)X_t^p \|^2 \) We update the principal directions at each lag \(\mathbf{w}_p\) to maximize the variance captured by \(\mathbf{w}_p \mathbf{w}_p^T\). An example of a 2-d lag matrix embedding with the principal directions are provided : ## Time Series## PCA embedding of sliding windows in two dimensionsColormap shows the increasing time instant \(t\) at which new samples \(x(t)\), and thus lag-vectors \(X_t^2\) arrive. ## Global glow for Multi-scale Anomaly detection## Least correlated Scale Vs 2nd Iteration of Streaming PCA## Detector performance (AUC) Vs Avg. Reconstruction error## Streaming PCA on multi-scale Lag-matrix \(\| \pmb{\alpha}_t \|^2 \)## 2nd Iteration of streaming PCA on multi-scale Lag-matrix \(\| \widetilde{\pmb{\alpha}_t} - \pmb{\alpha}_t\|^2\)Representation : Multi-scale lagmatrix Aggregation methods : Least correlated scale, Norm of multi-scale anomaly score, Norm of reconstruction error of anomaly scores. Each point in each scatterplot corresponds to a time series from dataset B2, B3, B4 in Yahoo!.
## Non-linear features for predictive model based anomaly detectionIn second study, we study the performance of scattering transform representation of time series for the purpose of time series prediction using auto-regressive models. We use the prediction error for the purpose of anomaly and change point detection. We also compare our performance with a simple representation of the time series window created by evaluating concatenating non-linear functions of the window at the current time instant with scattering transform representation. The two types of features that we study in the report. Simple features on moving window \(w\) by the embedding
\(\mathbf{x} = \{\min(x_{1:T}), \max(x_{1:T}), \text{avg}(x_{1:T}), \text{std}(x_{1:T}), \text{TV}(x_{1:T})\}\) where \(\mathbf{x} \in \mathbb{R}^5\) and TV\((w)\) is the digital version of the total variation of the series \(\sum^T_{t=1} |x_t - x_{t+1}|\). Scattering transform \(S x\) of signal \(x\)
We train the following linear predictors to evaluate the variance scaled prediction error as anomaly score : Scalar and Vector Autoregressive Models (AR, VAR) AR and VAR models on PCA transformed features. (PCR, PC-VAR)
(Results coming up shortly) ## Reading List## Multiscale Anomaly detectionMulti-scale anomaly detection algorithm based on infrequent pattern of time series 2006 link Optimal Multi-scale Patterns in Time Series Streams 2006 pdf Streaming Pattern Discovery in Multiple Time-Series 2005 (SPIRIT) pdf Real-Time Anomaly Detection for Streaming Analytics pdf Combining Filtering and Statistical Methods for Anomaly Detection pdf ASAP: A Streaming Operator for Smoothing Time Series Visualizations Generic and Scalable Framework for Automated Time-series Anomaly Detection KDD 2015 pdf Measuring predictability using multiscale embedding 1996 link Derivative Delay Embedding: Online Modeling of Streaming Time Series 2016 pdf Joakim & Mallat. “Deep scattering spectrum.”Trans. on Signal Processing (2014) pdf.
## Subspace Tracking and SketchingB. Yang. Projection approximation subspace tracking 1995 (PAST-D algorithm) Online PCA with Spectral Bounds 2015 pdf Online PCA in High Dimension: Which Algorithm to Choose? 2015 pdf Structure Discovery in Nonparametric Regression by Compositional Kernel Search ICML 2013 pdf Modeling Time Series & Sequences: Learning Representations & Making Predictions (2015) thesis
## OthersLOF: Identifying Density-Based Local Outliers 2000 pdf Incremental Local Outlier Detection for Data Streams 2007 pdf Machine Learning for Sequential Data: A Review pdf How to Evaluate the Quality of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Algorithms? 2015 pdf Robust Multivariate Autoregression for Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Product Ratings 2014 pdf Time delay neural network Wiki
## Workshops and Conferences on anomaly detection |